The Río Chama just as it enters the Española Valley, before the confluence with the Río Grande. Shot from an ultralight aircraft.

MAY 1932 

From “Primitive Skies: A Glimpse into the Historic Old Indian Pueblos
of New Mexico from an Airplane”  

Across the pale wasteland of time-sculptured formations, written large with events and personages in the book of Tewa, we come to the most populous of the communities, Oke (the up-stream-place), or San Juan as named by the conquistadores. Nearby was begun the first Spanish settlement in 1598. They chose a beautiful spot. The wide green ribbon of the Río Chama flows in from the west; somewhat further south Rito Santa Cruz purls down from the lofty range east. Their confluence with the Río Grande creates the garden spot of the basin, Tewa Glen, better known as Española Valley.